Orthopedic Surgery is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, spine diseases, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders.
The word Orthopedics comes from two Greek words, ortho, meaning straight and pais, meaning child. Originally, orthopedic surgeons dealt with bone deformities in children, using braces to straighten the child’s bones. With the development of anesthesia and an understanding of the importance of aseptic methods in surgery, orthopedic surgeons extended their role to include surgery involving the bones and related nerves and connective tissue.
Orthopedic sometimes spelled orthopaedic surgery is surgery performed by a medical specialist, such as an orthopedist or orthopedic surgeon, trained to deal with problems that develop in the bones, joints, and ligaments of the human body.
Some of the conditions and diseases an orthopaedic surgeon treats include:
- Abnormalities of the fingers and toes.
- Back pain, ruptured disks, sciatica and scoliosis.
- Bone tumors, muscular dystrophy and cerebral palsy.
- Club foot, bunions, bow legs, knock knees and unequal leg length.
- Fractures and dislocations.
- Growth abnormalities.
- Rheumatoid arthritis.
- Sports or work-related injuries.
- Tendon injuries, pulled muscles, bursitis and torn cartilage.
- Torn ligaments, sprains and strains.
What Types of Surgeries do Orthopaedic Surgeons Perform?
Orthopaedic surgeons perform numerous types of surgeries on patients. The range of treatments done by orthopedists is enormous. It can cover anything from traction to amputation, hand reconstruction to spinal fusion or joint replacements. They also treat broken bones, strains and sprains, and dislocations.
Common surgeries include:
- Arthroscopy – a procedure by means of special cameras and equipment to visualize, diagnose and treat problems inside a joint.
- Fusion – a “welding” process by which bones are fused together with bone grafts and internal devices, such as metal rods to heal into a single solid bone.
- Internal Fixation – a method to hold the broken pieces of bone in proper position with metal plates, pins or screws while the bone is healing.
- Joint replacement (partial, total and revision) – when an arthritic or damaged joint is removed and replaced with an artificial joint called a prosthesis.
- Osteotomy – the correction of bone deformity by cutting and repositioning the bone.
- Soft Tissue Repair – the mending of soft tissue, such as torn tendons or ligaments.
Types of Orthopaedic Surgery
Joint replacement is a kind of orthopaedic surgery known for restoring freedom of movement and eliminate the pain because of degenerated and diseased joints. Hip and know replacement are the most common ones. Due to technological advancements, now-a-days cementless implants are being used for customized fitting to increase longevity. This surgery might not last long and may need a second chance too.
There are various kinds of joint replacement surgeries:
- Total hip replacement
- Total knee replacement
- Total shoulder replacement
- Total elbow replacement
- Partial Knee Replacement
- Wrist replacement
- Hand joint (small) replacement surgery
- Ankle joint replacement
- Minimally Invasive Knee Replacement Surgery [MIKRS]
Arthroscopic (Keyhole) surgery
Arthroscopic surgeries are known as Keyhole surgeries as the incision for the operation is the size of a small hole in the skin. This surgery deals the operations of joints. Recovery in the case of this surgery is much faster in comparison to the traditional surgery. Keyhole surgery can be done in a number of body parts like shoulder, knee, wrist, ankle, and so on. The most performed keyhole surgery is of the knee joints. For a normal arthroscopic surgery, one has to stay in the hospital only for a day or 2 but physical exercise after the surgery is extremely important.
Arthroscopic surgery for problems in knee, shoulder, elbow and ankle, deals with the following:
- Trauma and Fracture surgery
- High quality Swiss ‘AO’ systems help stabilize fractures
- Image intensifier, confirms perfect fracture fixations
- Fusion of joints
- Ilizarov and External Fixation Device Management of open fractures
- Infected non-union of long bones
- Limb lengthening
- Correction of deformities
Spinal surgery includes operation of the degenerative, congenital and developmental disorders of the spine. The complete spine surgery program is a comprehensive interdisciplinary service that requires orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, neurologists, physical and rehabilitation medicine and anesthesia. Technological advancements in the field of medicine, along with traditional disc surgeries of back and neck, microscopic surgeries, spinal tumors, endoscopic spinal surgery and minimal surgeries are also being performed.
Spine surgery includes a number of things:
- Disc surgery Microsurgery for disc Fixation systems for fractures
- Surgery for correction of spinal deformities
- Surgery for spinal tuberculosis
- Endoscopic spine surgery
Arthritis, is primarily used in describing any kind of wear of cartilage with a number of symptoms like aches, pains and stiffness in joints. Rheumatism is also used for pain in muscles and joints. There are some other terms also used amongst the doctors:
- Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis
- Infective arthritis
- Traumatic arthritis
Pediatric orthopedics deals in the treatment of every musculoskeletal problem in children, which is inclusive of pediatric trauma, metabolic diseases, congenital malformations, and genetic abnormalities such as club foot, congenital dislocations, pseudarthrosis, birth injuries and other congenital deformities. Following are the included corrections:
- Congenital limb and spinal deformity corrections
- Bone and joint infection management
- Juvenile arthritis management
Ortho-Oncology / Bone Oncology Surgery
This surgery mainly deals with the removal of the cancer and a small amount of healthy bone that surrounds it. Surgery needs to be combined with radiation therapy.
Reconstructive and Salvage Corrective
Reconstructive and Salvage surgeries are performed for bone infections, implants and prosthesis infections, complicated fractures, congenital deformities and polio.
Orthopedic Surgery Benefits and Cost in India
The major benefit of orthopedic surgery in India, is the absolutely affordable and pocket-friendly prices of treatment as in compared to other countries of the world. Indian offers orthopedics treatments from internationally-trained medical practitioners who are assisted by dedicated staff/assistants. Best state-of-the-art equipment and even robotic surgery are used for the treatments in this field of medicine.